Looks similar to a ginger root but when cut has a gorgeous orange-yellow color. Turmeric is mainly used in Indian dishes for its medicinal properties and for the gorgeous intensive color it gives to the dishes. It is mildly aromatic and has a delicate scent of ginger. Turmeric is a wonder spice and is used throughout Asia to treat cases of stomach and liver ailments. It is also used externally to heal sores and in cosmetics.
The main quality of turmeric is called as Rajapuri which is produced in Sangli, Maharashtra. Masala manufacturers mainly use it due to its saffron color. The second main quality is Salem Gattha which is produced in Salem, Tamilnadu and that is why its name is pronounced as Salem Gattha.
India is the largest producer and exporter of turmeric powder. Bangladesh, Pakistan, Taiwan, Srilanka, Burma are other significant producers of turmeric powder. The US is the largest exporter of turmeric, India provides 90 % of the US demand, followed by Dubai, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka & Bangladesh.
Rajapuri Quality is also a known quality and attracts the Masala manufacturer besides the Salem variety. But production of this quality is low at ~2lakh bags. Both Rajapuri and Salem quality fetch higher prices. Third quality is produced in Messur, Karnataka and called as Godal Patte. It is considered slightly inferior in quality to the former 2. The fourth quality – the Finger quality gets its name from its shape – which looks like human finger. Major producing states are Tamil Nadu, AP, Maharashtra. Karnataka, Orissa, Meghalaya, Bihar and Assam are the main turmeric producing areas. Moreover, Erode, Selam and Rajapur are the main trading place. Other producing countries are Myanmar and China.
Total production of these states is around 3.75 lakh bags in which Meghalaya production is higher at around 100000 bags while the other states contribute for 5786 bags each. Sowing starts in July while main arrival time is February.
In 2008, total production of Turmeric was around 4200000 bags while in 2009, it is expected to touch the level of around 35-5000000 bags. Total consumption is around 7500000 bags which include both export and domestic demand.
Specification for Turmeric Whole (HS CODE: 09103020)
|Type:||Finger/Bulbs – Polished or Unpolished|
|Broken pieces (fingers<15mm):||< 5 %|
|Foreign matter:||< 1 %|
|Defectives:||< 3 %|
|Percentage of bulbs by weight:||< 4 % Starch content, max, w/w: 60 % Curcumin content: 4 – 5 %|
|Lead as PPB:||2.5|
|Acid insoluble ash:||2.5%|